Civil and Military Dimensions of Maritime Security
The development of coastal and ocean energy and natural resource production and extraction infrastructure and related ports and shipping movements requires significant maritime force projection in protecting strategic maritime space.
Shifting of international strategic maritime space to the Southern hemisphere means maritime force projection, the securing of open sea lanes, and the protection of ports and coastal and offshore energy and resource infrastructure will become increasingly important.
Amidst shifting of strategically important maritime space a new type of Navy is emerging. Australia along with Japan and South Korea are developing significant naval amphibious capability and submarine programs into the future.
Other countries are also emerging as maritime powers capable of displacing historical ones. For example, the transfer of traditional sea power to Brazil, Russia, China and India (BRCI) threatens European Union integrated maritime policy because of resource competition and internationalisation.
The combination of climate change, development of natural resource accessibility and significant threats to global shipping cumulatively may undermine development of a capability to respond to the shifting of strategic maritime space to the Southern hemisphere.
In a time of global environmental change development of regimes for offshore health, safety and security of EEZ natural resource exploration, production (eg established hydrocarbon facilities, wind farms etc), and raw extraction infrastructure (eg seabed mining) will be crucial.